Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2.1)

The Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2.1) is a 40-item self-reporting inventory that measures parental behaviors and is commonly used to assess the risk of child abuse and neglect. The AAPI-2.1 provides five subscales: expectations of children, parental empathy towards children's needs, use of corporal punishment, parent-child family roles, and children's power and independence. The instrument is offered in English, Spanish, Creole, and Arabic.



Expectations of children; parental empathy; use of corporal punishment; parent-child family roles; children's power and independence

Not specified

Administration information

10-15 minutes

AAPI / PARTI / NSCS Online Administrations: $10 per child for 1-10 students; Evaluation forms 120 pack: $12; Online Reporting Module: $20 per report


Access and Use

Instrument Use in Peer-Reviewed Studies

Benzies, Karen, Suzanne Tough, Nancy Edwards, Richelle Mychasiuk, and Carlene Donnelly. 2011. “Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program.” Journal of Child and Family Studies 20 (3): 311–18.

Jambunathan, Saigeetha. 2006. “Relationship between Perception of Self-Competence and Parenting Attitudes of Asian Indian Preschoolers.” Early Child Development and Care 176 (7): 745–52.

Hanson, Richard A. 1990. “Initial Parenting Attitudes of Pregnant Adolescents and a Comparison with the Decision about Adoption.” Adolescence 25 (99): 629–43.


Computer scoring
Manual scoring
Open Access
Resources on Psychometric Properties

Bavolek, Stephen J, and Richard G Keene. 2010. “The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2)® Online Development Handbook.” Family Development Resources, Inc.

Lawson, Michael A., Tania Alameda-Lawson, and Edward Byrnes. 2017. “Analyzing the Validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory for Low-Income Populations.” Research on Social Work Practice 27 (4): 441–55.

Strickler, Amy, Annette C. Trunzo, and Michael S. Kaelin. 2018. “Treatment Foster Care Pre-Service Trainings: Changes in Parenting Attitudes and Fostering Readiness.” Child & Youth Care Forum 47 (1): 61–79.

Conners, Nicola A., Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, David Deere, Toni Ledet, and Mark C. Edwards. 2006. “Measuring the Potential for Child Maltreatment: The Reliability and Validity of the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory--2.” Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal 30 (1): 39–53.