Improving Teaching Practice with Instructional Coaching
Laura Neergaard Booker | Vanderbilt University
Jennifer Lin Russell | University of Pittsburgh
Design Principles for Improving Practice with Instructional Coaching at a Glance
Who are the best candidates to coach and to be coached?
COACHES - Coaches who are skilled in teaching and are able to build trusting relationships with the teachers they coach generate stronger improvements in teaching and learning.
TEACHERS - Teachers who are less experienced and teachers who are more open to being coached benefit most from coaching.
What do effective coaches do?
ACTIVITIES - Planning discussions, observation, and feedback are essential coaching activities
FOCUS - Content-specific coaching in reading and math shows greater effects on teaching and learning than coaching focused on general teaching practices.
FREQUENCY & DURATION - Most studies of coaching include at least several coaching interactions during a school year, though coaching quality likely matters more than quantity.
DELIVERY MODE - Coaching can take place in-person or virtually. Video-recording lessons for coaches can facilitate scaling a coaching program.
What supports do coaches need to be successful?
TIME - Coaches often spend less time coaching than intended. Positioning them as district -level rather than school-level support can help reduce this problem.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT - Coaches benefit from opportunities to connect with and learn from their peers, as well as other forms of professional development.
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT - Coaches perform best with strong support from their school and district leadership.